Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country by land area in the world and the largest landlocked country. Its history dates back to bronze age with Scythians tribes roaming in the steppes and the mountains of the country. Scythians were supplanted by the Turkic speakers from the east who spread into various tribal groupings. The invasion of Mongols had great impact on the region who held their Karaultai the grand assembly on the steppes which started the distribution of Mongol empire resulting in the emergence of Khanates in the region. The Kazakh groups were united under the strong leadership of Abul Khair Khan which fought many successive battles against the enemies including Dzungars. It was then the beginning of the imperial Russian forces which spread their arm across the country whose downfall resulted in the emergence of Bolshevik rule with the formation of Soviet Union. After the dismemberment of Soviet Union Kazakhstan declared its independence as the last of the Central Asian Republics in 1991.